Xu Weiguo, executive deputy governor of the People's Government of Liaoning Province, made a detailed report on Liaoning Province's achievements in the research and development of major technology and equipment and the problems that existed.
Li Ye, head of the industrial group of the State Councilâ€™s revitalization Northeast Office, presided over the meeting. Wen Zhenfu, head of the comprehensive group of the State Councilâ€™s Revitalization Northeast Office, Tian Xueren, executive deputy governor of the People's Government of Jilin Province, and Chen Zhenggao, member of the Standing Committee of Liaoning Provincial Party Committee and Shenyang Municipal Party Committee attended the meeting.
This conference is the first large-scale experience exchange meeting held since the establishment of the National Development and Reform Commission Major Equipment Office (the State Councilâ€™s revitalization Northeast Office Industrial Group). At the meeting, Zhang Guobao made a keynote report on the urgency and direction of China's equipment manufacturing industry development and enhancement of independent innovation capabilities. The organizer of the conference, Shenyang Municipal People's Government, reported on how to innovate the government management model, promote the restructuring and transformation of Shenyang Tiexi old industrial area, and reform and reorganization of state-owned enterprises. Major Group Company, CGNPC Group, China Southern Power Grid Corporation, Huazhong CNC Company, Harbin Air Conditioning Co., Ltd., Shanghai Shipbuilding Crankshaft Co., Ltd., Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Harbin The company representatives such as the Measuring & Cutting Tool Group made typical presentations on the major technical equipment R&D experience in their respective fields.
At the same time, 21 companies such as State Grid Corporation of China, China National Second Heavy Machinery Group Corporation, Harbin Power Station Equipment Group, and Changchun Railway Vehicle Co., Ltd. had written exchanges on initiatives, achievements, and experiences in promoting independent innovation. Representatives from the relevant departments of the State Council, the People's Government of Liaoning Province, the People's Government of Shenyang City, and Shanghai, Chongqing, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Dalian, and other provincial and municipal development and reform commissions (economic commissions) attended the meeting.
Four major factors restrict the autonomy of major technological equipment
While equipment manufacturing industry has maintained a relatively high growth rate in recent years, and many key technology and equipment autonomy have made substantial progress and affirmation, Zhang Guobao also has four major factors that currently restrict Chinaâ€™s major technological equipment autonomy. Made a specific analysis.
First, from the point of view of the equipment manufacturing companies themselves, their capabilities and levels cannot yet meet the needs of domestic economic construction. In particular, there is still a large gap between the R&D and manufacturing capabilities of major technical equipment and foreign advanced levels.
At present, of the 16 major technological and equipment fields identified by the country as key development areas, many product categories are still left blank in China. Although some products have achieved domestic production and manufacturing, they lack the capability of independent design and the core technologies are still in the hands of foreign companies. . For example, a large pumped storage unit is a clean, energy-saving device that has double peak-shaving capabilities and can also perform tasks such as frequency modulation and equalization. Unit startup and shutdown and lift load is flexible, convenient, and reliable, and can effectively improve power supply quality and reliability of the power grid. Sex. Internationally, pumped storage units generally account for about 8% to 15% of the total installed capacity of the power station. China's pumped storage capacity is only 6 million kilowatts, which accounts for only 1.2% of the total installed capacity. It is far from meeting the safety and stability requirements of the power grid. Operational requirements.
With the strong reorganization of multinational corporations in recent years, the trend of technological monopoly has become more and more obvious. In the past, the technology introduction methods often used have become increasingly difficult to implement. In addition, in the previous major technology equipment introduction process, we paid more attention to the introduction of the whole machine and paid insufficient attention to the introduction and digestion of key components and raw materials, which made the current development of these areas lag behind and seriously restricted the healthy development of China's equipment manufacturing industry. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan once specifically pointed out: "In the major equipment localization project, large-scale key castings and forgings rely on imported supplies, and the capability and quality of domestically manufactured parts cannot meet the demand, which has become a bottleneck in the development of major equipment manufacturing industries and is subject to people."
Second, many domestic equipment manufacturers are burdened with heavy historical burdens and have limited self-development capabilities.
Most of China's equipment manufacturing companies are located in the old industrial bases in the northeast, southwest, and northwest, and most of them are "one five".
The old state-owned enterprises that developed during the â€œthree-wireâ€ construction period were most affected by the planned economic system. The lack of ideological liberation, the relative lag in system and mechanism innovation, the overpayment of technical reforms, the poor production and operation status and economic benefits, and the loss of human resources. It is also relatively serious.
At present, market conditions have created a lot of apparent prosperity for equipment manufacturing companies. The ability of enterprises to resist risks is still far from sufficient. Once the market demand slows and the economic efficiency of enterprises declines, many companies are likely to reproduce the economic downturn in 1996 and 1997. .
Third, from the perspective of the major technical equipment use departments, some user companies are keen to repeat the introduction and lack the initiative to adopt autonomous products. In particular, it is difficult to break through the market access of the first (set) major equipment products for independent innovation.
Since the reform and opening up, the country has spent a lot of money on the introduction of technology. After the manufacturing companies digested and absorbed, they have also developed many new products, but often they have not been verified because they did not rely on the project, or they have been deprived of bid qualifications because they have no operational performance.
In addition, many products, even if they already have domestic production capacity and technical level, but users still refuse to use various excuses, or artificially set various obstacles, increase the threshold for domestic equipment to enter the market.
There are also some users who are blindly pursuing the use of the most advanced foreign technologies and equipment when purchasing equipment. They neither consider the cost-performance ratio nor the simultaneous development of the domestic manufacturing industry. A technology has not yet been promoted and pursues other advanced technologies. The technology or equipment, resulting in similar equipment, "Wan Guopai" and repeated introduction. Without a stable equipment and technology route, equipment manufacturing can only follow foreign technology and disperse energy and capital.
Fourth, the policy environment for major technological equipment autonomy needs to be improved, and the government's regulatory system is still not perfect.
For example, for a long time, there has been an inverted phenomenon in the import policy of China's equipment manufacturing industry, that is, the materials and accessory parts and components that an equipment manufacturing company needs to import in order to realize the localization of major technical equipment must pay the full tariff and import value-added tax. The import of complete sets of equipment can reduce the above-mentioned two taxes. The cost burden caused by the policy makes the independent production worse than importing complete sets of equipment. The flaws in these policy systems have seriously affected the enthusiasm of domestic companies and research institutes for independent innovation.
Moreover, since major equipment is mostly used for national key projects, and many key project owners are monopolistic industries, the implementation of localization of equipment is entirely dependent on market mechanisms. The government should formulate policies to guide and necessary Organization and coordination.
With the withdrawal of industry authorities, in recent years, users such as large multinational corporations have maliciously acquired key equipment manufacturers in China's equipment manufacturing industry and individual monopolized industries have blindly imported foreign equipment, and individual local governments have taken over the sale of state-owned equipment enterprises. On the major issues such as the practice, the central governmentâ€™s macro-management and regulation functions have been weakened.
National related policies increase support
Regarding the issue of intensifying macroeconomic control, the state has successively issued a series of policies and measures to promote the independence of major technological equipment, in particular the Outline of the State Council's Issuing and Implementation of the National Medium and Long-Term Scientific and Technological Development Plan (2006-2020). Several documents, including the "Notice on Several Supporting Policies" and "Several Opinions of the State Council on Accelerating the Revitalization of Equipment Manufacturing Industry," have comprehensively and systematically proposed countermeasures.
This series of related policies covers many aspects of supporting the development of major technical equipment. Among them, in encouraging enterprises to increase R&D investment, the state has established a taxation policy that encourages enterprises to increase their independent innovation, mainly including: increasing the deduction of income before the income tax for the company's independent innovation investment, allowing the company to actually 150% of the technology development cost deducts the amount of taxable income for the current year, allowing companies to accelerate the research and development of equipment and equipment such as depreciation.
In accelerating the introduction of digestion, absorption and re-innovation, the state will, when approving or approving key construction projects, have a targeted arrangement of relying on a number of major technological equipment to support its own projects, and require the project owners and manufacturing departments to jointly develop detailed equipment for independent manufacturing. The plan, relevant enterprises and units should give strong support. For major equipment that cannot be provided domestically and many companies need to introduce, the State encourages uniform tendering and guides foreign companies in the United Nations to bid. While importing equipment, it is necessary to introduce advanced design and manufacturing technologies and support domestic enterprises to participate in subcontracting and realizing local manufacturing as much as possible. All the equipment required for engineering projects that belong to key areas must be included in the scope of tendering work organized by the unified organization. The relevant departments of the state must organize, coordinate, and provide guidance for the bid invitation work.
In the future, the countryâ€™s comprehensive economic department will take the lead, and related departments such as science and technology, education, finance, commerce, taxation, customs, quality inspection, and intellectual property rights will participate in the formation of a coordination agency, establish a coordination mechanism for the introduction, absorption, and re-innovation of technologies, and formulate major industrial technologies. And the introduction of equipment policies, organization and coordination and supervision of the major introduction of technology to absorb and re-innovation work.
In order to enhance the company's development capabilities, the relevant departments will continue to provide key support for major technological equipment autonomy projects. The state set up special funds in the annual investment arrangements to give priority support to key technical projects required by the stateâ€™s key construction projects and major technological equipment that have a major impact on structural adjustment and industrial upgrading. At the same time, qualified equipment manufacturers are encouraged to raise funds through public financing and issuing corporate bonds.
For the first (set) into the market difficult problem, the country proposed to establish incentives for independent innovation of the government's first purchase and ordering system. The trial products produced by domestic enterprises or scientific research institutes and the first-to-market products meet the development requirements of the national economy and the development direction of advanced technologies. It has been determined that the government will make the first purchase, which will be directly purchased by the purchaser or financed by the government. The advanced equipment and products that have been re-innovated and formed through digestion and absorption have been included in the scope of government procurement. The national key projects for ordering and using the first (sets) of domestically-made major technical equipment may be determined as demonstration projects for technological progress, and priority arrangements will be made. It is also necessary to establish as soon as possible a major technology and equipment insurance mechanism in which project owners, equipment manufacturing companies and insurance companies share risks and share benefits, and guide equipment manufacturing companies and project owners to insure the first (set) domestically produced major technical equipment.
For national major construction projects and other projects that use fiscal funds to purchase major equipment and products, the relevant departments shall make the commitment to purchase independent innovation products as a condition for declaration and approval of projects, and clearly specify the specific requirements for the procurement of independent innovation products. In key projects invested by the state and local governments, the proportion of domestic equipment purchases must not be less than 60% of the total value. For projects that do not purchase independent innovation products as required, the financial department will not pay the funds.
The introduction of major complete sets of equipment and its technology must involve the joint participation of manufacturers, R&D, and users, and must strictly examine and demonstrate the major technological equipment and key products that are directly developed by foreign countries with additional funds that are directly imported.
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