Manganese ore smelting products are high-carbon manganese iron, low carbon ferromanganese, and silicon manganese metal manganese alloy and the like, known as manganese or manganese alloy carbide.
High carbon ferromanganese. China mainly uses blast furnace production. In the 1950s, special manufacturers were not formed to produce blast furnace ferromanganese (high-carbon ferromanganese), but some steel plants were self-smelting and self-selling, and the production volume was small. Since 1958, the Xiangtan manganese mine has successively built 6.5m3 and 33m3 blast furnaces to smelt ferromanganese. After the 1960s, Xinyu, Yangquan, Maanshan No. 3 Plant and Chongqing Iron and Steel No. 4 Plant converted blast furnace ferromanganese into the 80s, blast furnace ferromanganese Develop faster. The output of blast furnace ferromanganese increased from 200,000 tons in 1981 to 400,000 tons in 1995.
The products produced by the electric furnace include carbon ferromanganese, medium and low carbon ferromanganese, manganese silicon alloy and metal manganese. The earliest electric furnace production in China was Jilin Ferroalloy Plant, which was completed and put into operation in 1956. The maximum electric furnace capacity was 12500kVA. In the early 1960s, ferroalloy plants such as Hunan, Zunyi and Shanghai were completed and put into operation. These plants can produce carbon ferromanganese and medium and low. Carbon ferromanganese and manganese silicon alloys; Zunyi Ferroalloy Plant also produces manganese metal by electrothermal method. According to the 1995 National Technical and Economic Indicators for Ferroalloys of the Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, 11 of the 15 key ferroalloy plants in China produced manganese alloy products in 1994. These key ferroalloy plants have been continuously developed and expanded to make an important contribution to the steel industry.
Since the 1980s, local small and medium-sized ferroalloy enterprises have developed rapidly. According to statistics, the proportion of ferroalloy production in local small and medium-sized enterprises has increased from 32.39% in 1980 to 54.01% in 1989, and has reached 69.85% in 1996. The number of enterprises has reached more than 1,000. Most of these SMEs use small electric furnaces of 1800kVA, and the equipment is backward, and the quality of the products is relatively poor.
The equipment used in the production of electric furnace ferromanganese and manganese silicon alloy is basically the same, and all use the ore electric furnace. The capacity of the electric furnace transformer is generally 1800~12500kVA. Hunan and Zunyi Ferroalloy Plants have introduced 3000kVA and 31500kVA manganese silicon electric furnaces from Germany, which have been put into production.
In China, the production of high-carbon ferromanganese in electric furnaces is generally carried out by the flux method. The production of manganese-silicon alloys generally uses a slag-based production process.
The production of medium and low carbon ferromanganese mainly includes three types: electric furnace method, oxygen blowing method and shaking method. The shake method includes the production of medium and low carbon ferromanganese in the shake bag and the production of medium and low carbon ferromanganese by the shake-electric furnace method. The shaker-electric furnace process is relatively advanced, the production is stable and reliable, and the technical and economic effects are good. At present, Shanghai, Zunyi and other ferroalloy factories adopt this method.
Metal manganese production methods include pyrometallurgical and wet smelting. The smelting of manganese metal by fire method began in 1959 in China. It was successfully produced by Zunyi Ferroalloy Factory for the first time using electric silicon thermal method. It has been exclusively produced so far. The production process adopts a three-step method, the first step is to form manganese-rich slag with manganese ore; the second step is to refine high-silicon-silicon-manganese alloy with manganese-rich slag, the third step is to use manganese-rich slag as raw material, and high-silicon-silicon-manganese is used as reducing agent. And lime as a flux, that is, electric silicon thermal method to make manganese metal. Wet smelting is mainly electrolytic, often called electrolytic manganese. In 1956, China built the first electrolytic manganese production plant from Shanghai 901 Factory. By the early 1990s, there were more than 50 large-scale electrolytic manganese plants, with an annual production capacity of more than 40,000 tons. The production process is roughly divided into three production processes: preparation, electrolysis and post-treatment of manganese sulfate solution. Post-treatment is a series of operations including product purification, water washing, drying, stripping, and packaging after the completion of electrolysis. Finally, qualified electrolytic manganese metal products are obtained, containing Mn 99.70% to 99.95%.
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