Tool hardness factors

The hardness of the tool was measured with a Rockwell hardness tester. Steel props are used to test HRC hardness, hard alloy tools are used to test HRA hardness, and PHR series portable Rockwell hardness testers are very suitable for testing tool hardness. The instrument weighs 0.7kg and has the same accuracy as a desktop computer. It can be tested like a micrometer and is easy to use and carry.

There are many factors that affect tool quality. Among them, hardness is one of the important factors that determine the quality of a tool. The hardness of the tool is determined by the material, and different materials determine the different hardness. The materials used to make the tool are: tungsten carbide, high speed steel, alloy tool steel, etc. The hardness of the tool is generally between 56 (58)-63HRC.

Tool material

When the hardness of the tool material is high, the wear resistance is also high. However, the higher the hardness of the tool material, the lower its bending strength and impact toughness. Here's a brief introduction to the two materials that make the tool.

High-speed steel is still one of the most widely used tool materials due to its high bending strength, impact toughness and good machinability.

Coated tools, with high surface hardness, good wear resistance, chemical stability, heat and oxidation resistance, low friction factor and low thermal conductivity, coating tool can improve tool life than uncoated tools 3~5 More than times, increase the cutting speed of the tool by 20%~70%, improve the processing accuracy by 0.5~1 level, and reduce the tool consumption cost by 20%~50%.

As a result, coated tools have become the hallmark of modern cutting tools and have used more than 50% of the tool. Currently, various tools used in cutting include turning tools, boring tools, drills, reamers, broaches, taps, combs, rolling heads, milling cutters, forming tools, gear hobs, and gear shaping tools. Both can use coating processes to improve their performance.

There are four types of coated knives: coated high-speed steel knives, coated carbide knives, and coated knives on ceramic and superhard material (diamond or cubic boron nitride) inserts. However, most of the previous two coated tools were used. The coating on ceramic and super-hard material inserts is lower in hardness than the base material. The purpose is to improve the fracture toughness of the tool surface (can be increased by more than 10%), reduce tool chipping and breakage, and expand the range of tool applications .

Tool classification

The tool can be divided into five categories according to the form of the workpiece surface. Tool for machining a variety of outer surfaces, including turning tools, planers, milling cutters, broaches, boring tools, etc.; hole-cutting tools, including drills, reamers, boring tools, reamers, and broaches on the inside; thread machining Tools, including taps, dies, automatic opening and closing threads, thread turning tools and thread milling cutters; gear cutting tools, including hobs, pinion cutters, shaving cutters, bevel gear cutting tools, etc.; cutting tools, including inserts Circular saw blades, band saws, hack saws, cutting tools, saw cutters, etc. In addition, there are combination cutters.

According to the cutting movement mode and the corresponding blade shape, the tool can be divided into three categories. General-purpose tools, such as turning tools, planers, milling cutters (not including shaped turning tools, shaping planers, and forming cutters), boring tools, drills, reamers, reamers, saws, etc.; forming tools; cutting edges of such tools It has the same or nearly the same shape as the cross-section of the workpiece to be machined, such as forming lathes, forming planers, forming cutters, broaches, conical reamers, and various thread cutting tools, etc.; Teeth or similar workpieces, such as hobs, pinions, shavers, bevel gears, bevel gear cutters, etc.