Research Status of New Technology for Flotation of Complex Polymetallic Sulfide Ore

I. Introduction

In the multi-metal sulfide ore, since certain mineral floating properties very close, fine mineral disseminated, complicated structure, serious oxide, clay content plurality, resulting in recycling difficulties. With the continuous exploitation and utilization of mineral resources, limited mineral resources are becoming more and more scarce, mineral resources are constantly developing due to the characteristics of poverty, fineness, miscellaneous and difficult. It is difficult to obtain better selection by using conventional chemicals and mineral processing techniques. index. Over the years, domestic and foreign mineral processing workers have conducted a lot of research on the separation of polymetallic sulfide ore, and many new research results have been achieved in the new flotation technology. In this paper, the current status of research on new technology of complex polymetallic sulfide ore flotation is introduced by a single process.

2. Research status of new technology for complex polymetallic sulfide ore flotation

(1) Electrochemical treatment flotation process

1. Electrochemical regulation flotation

Electrochemical regulation flotation technology, including external electric field flotation, adjustment of slurry potential flotation and primary potential flotation. Leppinen Jo J of Finland studied the electrochemical control of the separation of copper and zinc from complex sulfide ore. The results show that for copper flotation, the optimal potential should be controlled at +50 ~ +150mV; for zinc flotation, the optimal potential should be controlled at a low potential of 150mV. Viti V et al. proposed a method of controlling potential flotation (adding a chemical regulator) using a flotation gas (air, nitrogen, etc.). Lead copper zinc complex polymetallic sulfide ore, the potential can be kept constant throughout the flotation stage, than without controlling the potential to improve the selectivity of the copper mineral flotation. Panayatov V et al. attempted to achieve copper-zinc separation directly by using an electrochemical treatment method in the flotation cell without an inhibitor. The choice of electrode material was determined according to the electrophysical properties of the mineral to be suppressed. First, the surface potential of the control to suppress pyrite pyrite, sphalerite and then suppressed by changing the work function of the surface of the mineral. Electrochemically treated, depending on the conductivity type of the mineral, n-type semiconductor or p-type semiconductor. Studies have shown that the proposed electrochemical treatment technology can be successfully applied to the separation of copper-zinc ore and concentrate. The process is applied to the Cayli copper mine in Turkey. The copper concentrate obtained contains less than 2% zinc, and the plant is conventionally floated. The zinc content of the selected copper concentrate was 4.6%. The Russian Ural Copper and Zinc Plant is equipped with an electrochemical device in the flotation machine. Industrial tests have shown that the application of this device in the copper-zinc-sulfur mixed flotation circuit can enhance the flotation. When the anode-polarized slurry potential is +1.0~+2OV, the recovery rate of copper and zinc-sulfur can be significantly improved. The OK·PCF potential control system developed by Orankamp of Finland directly controls the electrochemical potential of minerals during flotation. It not only considers the hydrophobicity of the mineral surface, but also considers the influence of a series of chemical inferences and physical factors on the mineral surface and flotation process in the pulp, providing a scientific and simple method for the correct control of the flotation process. The system has been applied in the Vihan ti copper lead-zinc mine and the Pyhazalmi copper-lead-zinc pyrite mine. According to reports, since the use of OK-PCP potential control, profits have increased by 10% to 20%, and the amount of collector and lime has been reduced by 2/3. A copper-lead-zinc polymetallic sulfide ore copper-lead mineral has a fine grain size and is difficult to separate. The zinc mineral is mainly iron sphalerite, and only lead concentrate and zinc concentrate are produced on site, and the selection index is poor. To this end, for the nature of ore, the use of copper-lead mixed float-copper-lead separation-mixed floating tailings sulfur-suppressing zinc potential-controlled flotation process, by controlling the slurry potential, mixing the coarse concentrate and grinding, selecting efficient collectors, Activators, inhibitors and other measures have led to better sorting of copper-lead minerals and zinc-sulfur minerals, copper minerals and lead minerals, iron sphalerite and pyrrhotite. The closed-circuit test obtained copper concentrate with copper content of 18.13% and copper recovery rate of 55.41%, lead concentrate with lead 50.20%, lead recovery rate of 83.29%, zinc concentrate with zinc content of 49.75% and zinc recovery rate of 86.17%, and on-site In contrast, not only copper minerals have been recovered, but also the quality and recovery of lead and zinc concentrates have been greatly improved. For lead-zinc sulfide ore, potential controlled flotation is generally worth promoting. It can be foreseen that with the in-depth development and improvement of the electrochemical theory and process research of sulfide ore flotation, a major change in the flotation and separation process of sulfide ore will occur.

2, flash flotation

Flash flotation is a new flotation technology developed by Central South University in China. The basic idea is derived from the principle of flotation electrochemistry. Different sulfide minerals can interact with flotation reagents in different pH pulps. The buoyancy varies, and this difference varies with the pH of the pulp. The technology firstly determines the pH value of the maximum floatability difference of the selected sorting minerals to quickly achieve the separation of the target minerals, realizes the short-flow operation, reflects the principle of early harvest, over-receipt and fast-receiving, and improves the comprehensive utilization efficiency of resources. And benefits. Compared with the traditional flotation technology, the new flash flotation technology has the following main technical features: (1) using the combined action mechanism of pH value, slurry potential and flotation reagent to achieve the purpose of sorting mineral particles under high alkali conditions. Separation; (2) Different from the traditional high-alkali potential control process. First, the quick-selection operation is strengthened, and high-quality flotation concentrate is obtained in time, while the target mineral particles which are difficult to float are in the subsequent process. Output, concentrate has 2 exports; (3) different drug selection systems. The Yunnan Mengzi Bainiu silver polymetallic ore mine adopts a new high-alkali flash flotation process to improve the comprehensive selection of metals such as lead, zinc, silver and indium . After the application of the process in the Bai Niuchang concentrator, the production index is significantly improved compared with the original process. The lead concentrate has a zinc content of 4.2%, the lead concentrate grade is increased by 9.95%, the recovery rate is increased by 1.5%, and the zinc concentrate grade is improved. The increase of 1.88%, the recovery rate of zinc increased by 6.63%, the purpose of zinc concentrate reduction and the improvement of concentrate quality and recovery rate, and the consumption of chemicals was greatly reduced, the sorting process was simplified, and significant economic benefits were achieved.

(2) Fine particle flotation process

1. Floc flotation

In the flotation flotation, the flocculated ore particles are first selectively agglomerated to improve the flotation performance of the fine-grained minerals, and then the fine floc-forming fine ore particles are subjected to conventional flotation. The core of the flocculation flotation method is the selective hydrophobic flocculation of the fine ore particles to be floated. It includes dispersion, selective hydrophobization and formation of hydrophobic flocs. In addition to the natural hydrophobic minerals, the ore particles are selectively hydrophobized by the collector adsorbed on the ore particles to be floated. By mechanical agitation, kinetic energy is input to the hydrophobic ore particles to overcome the energy barrier, thereby forming a hydrophobic floc. Hydrophobic flocculation is mainly determined by the degree of hydrophobicity of the ore particles. The addition of non-polar oils or hydrophobic coarse particles generally enhances hydrophobic flocculation. The results of flotation flotation of Rey de Plata ore (metal sulfide ore) in Mexico show that flocculation caused by PAX and momentum input can greatly improve the floatability of fine galena and sphalerite. Rey de Plata ore flotation flotation indicates that flocculation flotation can not only recover fine-grained useful ore particles, but also reduce the loss of useful minerals in tailings, and can greatly improve the separation and separation by accelerating the flotation rate of useful minerals. effectiveness. Floc flotation is an effective method for recovering galena and sphalerite from fine-grained ore.

2, carrier flotation

The carrier flotation is to realize the flotation recovery of fine-grained minerals by using the coarse-grain effect and the carrier effect of the same type of ore particles in the flotation system under the conditions of the conventional flotation equipment . Vector fine mud flotation technology to solve the lead-zinc complex sulphide ore, fine mud and fine cassiterite sulfide, mixed oxide ore flotation separation problems, fine particles and fine copper sulfide ore of titanium, such mineral flotation separation The selectivity is improved. The technology has the characteristics of simple process, low dosage, high sorting index and high stability. The new technology of coarse-grained carrier copper-lead-zinc-tin ore fine-grain flotation developed by Central South University is aimed at the problem of poor recovery of fine-grain minerals and serious loss of poor, fine and miscellaneous mineral resources in the existing flotation technology for mining ore in China. In the traditional flotation process, the theory and new process research of "pharmaceutical regulation" and "granularity adjustment" were carried out. A new technology developed by Central South University, Shenzhen Zhongjin Lingnan Co., Ltd. Fankou Lead-Zinc Mine - using the coarse-grained effect of the same type of ore in the flotation system and the role of the carrier, in the condition of conventional coarse-grain (―0.07mm) flotation equipment The flotation recovery of fine ore is realized, and the technology is used for industrial production for the first time at home and abroad. For the lead-zinc ore, the technical scheme of adding the raw ore as a coarse carrier to the slime system, compared with the separate flotation of the slime, the lead recovery rate is increased by 60% and the zinc is more than 120%; for the fine-gravity ore ore, Coagulation and carrier flotation technology, compared with conventional flotation, improve the recovery rate of tin metal by more than 60%; for the sulfurized and oxidized mixed copper ore, using the coarse-grain effect of the sulfide ore coarse-grained ore, the coarse-grained ore is recovered by fine-grained ore recovery The mine combines the sulphide ore concentrate with the oxidized ore concentrate to solve the problem of metal loss in the thickener overflow; adding a coarse-grained monomeric copper mineral concentrate as a carrier to form “copper ore priority, carrier flotation Craft". For the 0.019mm ilmenite, the selective hydrophobic flotation flotation technology and coarse particle carrier flotation technology are used to improve the flotation effect of fine ilmenite.

(3) Magnetic processing flotation process

The use of comprehensive force field beneficiation is one of the current trends in comprehensive recycling of resources. The magnetic treatment county court is a new method to improve the flotation index by applying magnetic force to float water, pulp or chemicals. Mineral Processing Laboratory of Jiangxi University of Qiu Yan Province, Professor Fuli Zhu of scheelite, copper sulphide ore, fluorite ore and gold like the magnetic treatment flotation test results show that the magnetic treatment often improve useful minerals The recovery rate is 3% to 8%, the mouth position is increased by 2% to 4%, and the dosage of the drug can be saved by 10% to 20%. Theoretical results show that magnetic treatment can change the physicochemical properties of water system (mineral, water, pharmaceutical) solution, change the selectivity of the agent and mineral surface, increase the adsorption of collector on the mineral surface, and thus improve the flotation index.

(4) Biological flotation process

The biological beneficiation method is a new beneficiation method which has emerged in recent years. It has many advantages such as good sorting effect, simple process, low production cost and no pollution to the environment. Biological beneficiation is the selective removal of non-target mineral components from ore by the action of ore and microorganisms, thereby enriching useful minerals. Some foreign studies have shown that the strains tamed with different sulfide minerals have great influence on the buoyancy of various sulfide minerals, so that the selective biological inhibitors can be artificially cultured according to the demand. Such strains have great potential for the separation of polymetallic complexes. Bioflotation technology currently has more than five aspects: (1) using bacteria to change the surface properties of certain minerals (especially wettability), increasing the difference in floatability between minerals; (2) biological flotation in Study on coal desulfurization applications; (3) application of a biological flocculation on the dressing; (4) other microorganisms as flotation agent; (5) for traditional raw material with a micro flotation agent and its metabolites, improved The efficacy of the medicine. Microbial-mineral interactions will produce the following results for beneficiation: (1) microbes attach to mineral substrates to form biofilms; (2) biocatalytic oxidation, reduction, complexation, and precipitation reactions; (3) bacterial cells and metabolites Acting with different mineral components in the ore matrix to alter their properties. In order to explain the significance of this surface chemical change caused by bacterial action, Marshall used a flotation test with galena and sphalerite single minerals before and after the action of Thiobacillus thiooxidans. After the action with bacteria, the flotation recovery rate of galena is greatly reduced, from 100% in the absence of bacteria to 10% after biological treatment, and the biological treatment can enter the zinc flash regardless of the presence of flotation agent. Mine flotation. From the results obtained, the following conclusions can be drawn: galena is almost inhibited after 2 hours of action with the cells, and the sphalerite is completely floated. Consistent with the properties of its products (sulfate and hydroxide), the adsorption of cells on galena and sphalerite is very different, which is the flotation behavior of galena and sphalerite after interaction with cells. The opposite is mainly due to the similar effect of Yell et al. on the floatability of sphalerite and galena by biological treatment of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The selective flocculation test was carried out with galena and sphalerite artificial mixed samples (1:1). The results obtained also confirmed the effect of microorganisms on the surface properties of oxidized minerals and sulfide minerals during beneficiation. It has also been confirmed by experiments that the self-nutrient bacteria (Thiophora thiooxidans) can induce flotation of sphalerite and inhibit galena. At present, through many basic research and applied research work, high-efficiency and low-cost bacteria with strong force, good selectivity and low cost suitable for application under industrial conditions have been discovered and cultivated, which has shown a bright prospect for the industrial application of microbial beneficiation.

Third, the conclusion

The research on metal complex sulfide ore flotation has been a topic of concern for mineral processing workers. At present, research on flotation process technology has made good progress and achieved remarkable economic benefits in production. It can be said that in the increasingly depleted non-ferrous metal sulfide ore resources, strengthening the research of flotation theory and developing new high-efficiency flotation technology is still the focus and development direction of polymetallic symbiotic sulfide ore beneficiation research.

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