The increase in the engine compression ratio promotes the development of fuel oils toward higher grades. With the advancement of science and technology, people are paying more and more attention to the protection of the bad environment. Vehicle gasoline is developing in the direction of high-grade lead-free. Gasoline Engine Gasoline Lead-free Environment Protection Preface Since the advent of the automobile, it has experienced many years of development.
In the development of the automobile, people have been continuously exploring along the two major issues of the economy and emissions of vehicle operation. The economics of automobile operation mainly refer to the fuel consumption of the automobile and the maintenance cost of the automobile. The comprehensive application of these new technology products is of great significance to saving fuel and improving the economics of vehicle operation and improving the atmospheric environment.
This article describes the development of gasoline engine vehicles and the new requirements for fuel oil from the above aspects. Improve the engine compression ratio to reduce fuel consumption, vehicle gasoline towards the high lead-free compression ratio is the ratio of the total volume of the engine cylinder and combustion chamber volume ratio. Increasing engine compression ratio can not only increase the power of the gasoline engine, but also reduce fuel consumption. In particular, leaded gasoline, gasoline containing a large amount of sulfur-containing benzene aromatics and olefins, has brought increasingly serious pollution to the atmosphere. Therefore, controlling the emissions of automobiles and protecting the atmosphere have become the common voice of humanity.
In the early days, the octane number of straight-run gasoline could not meet the compression ratio requirements of modern gasoline engine vehicles. At present, high-octane gasoline is mainly obtained through the secondary processing technology and equipment technology. The octane number of gasoline produced by refinery processes and equipment technologies. The relationship between increasing octane number of gasoline and additional capital construction investment in Western Europe is described. Determination of the optimal octane number for the research method for the determination of the octane number of gasoline. In addition to the technological equipment for the secondary processing, the addition of antiknock agents to gasoline to increase the octane number of gasoline is another important approach.
The use of lead to increase the octane number of gasoline has been a cost-effective and easy-to-use method. However, lead discharged into the atmosphere through automobile combustion is harmful to human health. It damages the human nervous system and causes hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. At the same time, lead will also poison the precious metals such as cesium in the oxygen sensor in the EFI car and the platinum in the three-way catalytic converter. Therefore, the car gasoline must be lead-free at the same time as it advances to high marks. Therefore, while people are exploring for a long time how to improve the economical efficiency of automobiles, research on how to control vehicle emissions and protect the atmosphere has already mentioned an important agenda that is urgently needed.
At present, all countries in the world have established strict automobile emission standards to control the emission of pollutants. In the 1960s, the automobile emission standards in the United States were widely prescribed. In the 1970s, by improving the engine and using an oxidizing exhaust gas converter, the pollutant emission standards were gradually and strictly controlled. In the 1980s, exhaust gas three-way converters were used to further improve the engine and the use of new formulas and other measures. The exhaust emission standards were more stringent. To this end, the State Bureau of Technical Supervision has recently promulgated new automotive emission standards. The standard basically follows the European standard system.
For the emission standards of light-duty vehicles, the implementation of this standard must adopt a closed-loop electronically controlled direct injection engine to install exhaust catalytic converters and use of lead-free clean gasoline. Vehicle gasoline must be lead-free. Tetraethyl lead is an excellent antiknock agent, but it is harmful to the environment, toxic to the human body, and to the three-way catalyst of the oxygen sensor in the vehicle. Therefore, vehicle gasoline must be lead-free. Compared with the economically developed countries, China's lead-free petrol was started late, but the pace of development is alarming. Optimizing the structure of gasoline components and increasing the use of oxygenated fuels To achieve lead-free car gasoline, it is necessary to adjust and optimize the structure of gasoline components and increase the use of oxygenated fuels. This is to further improve the quality of gasoline products and meet modern engines. Automotive demand and the main goal of improving vehicle emissions. In the gasoline composition, sulfur content is a compelling ingredient. Therefore, reducing the sulfur content in gasoline is a continuous effort in the refining process.
Among gasoline components, benzene and aromatics have the best antiknock properties. It is not easy to burn completely and it is easy to generate carbon deposits. Gasoline with high content of benzene and aromatics will increase nitrogen oxides in combustion emissions, and photochemical reactants will also increase. The olefins are relatively lively, and it is easy to produce deposits in the intake valve of the engine nozzle at high temperatures. In order to strictly control the emission of harmful substances in automobile exhaust gas, it is usually strictly limited to the content of thiobenzene aromatics and olefins in the gasoline composition. Compared with the antiknock property of benzene aromatics, some oxygenated compounds containing oxy-fuel can be used as the high octane component of gasoline. They have a high octane rating, and when added to gasoline, they reduce emissions and neutralization levels. At the same time, the emissions of automobile exhaust gas have been improved.
The University of California study found that the added benefits of gasoline emissions to automobile emissions are not great, and the risks to human health are great. At present, this practice in California is still controversial in the United States. The author believes that in our country, there is no obvious negative impact. In the future period, it will still be an important high-octane component of lead-free gasoline for vehicles in China. Installation of external purification equipment Three-way catalytic converter As early as 20 years ago, the United States has installed three-way catalytic converters on automobiles.
At present, foreign new cars use three-way catalytic converters. The knowledge park converts the three hazardous substances in the automobile exhaust at the same time. When the catalyst is oxidized to zero and helium, it can be reduced by the knives to be converted from hafnium to niobium. The emission of harmful substances in the exhaust gas can be reduced by more than 95. Since the catalyst of the three-way converter contains several noble metals (Platinum is very susceptible to lead and other heavy metals, cars equipped with catalytic converters must use unleaded gasoline.
The development of closed-loop electronically controlled direct-injection vehicles and the application of lead-free clean gasoline Today, the prominent feature of the development of automotive technology is that electronic technology enters the vehicle's engine control system. It is of great significance to improving the running performance of vehicles, saving fuel, improving emissions and protecting the environment. As early as the 50's, electronically controlled direct-injection gasoline engines were first introduced on the aircraft. They were designed to ensure that engine speed and power were guaranteed under thin air conditions. Since then, electronic technology has begun to control the ignition advance angle in automobiles, gradually expanding to almost the entire engine's operational control.
Electronic systems that are now being applied and continue to be developed include electronic control systems that optimize economic efficiency and emissions, electronic control systems for fuel cutoff, electronic fuel injection systems, multi-point injection electronic systems, continuous fuel injection electronic systems, and electronic ignition systems. Self-adapting electronic system for adjusting engine functions, electronic control system for exhaust gas recirculation, electronic control system for intake and exhaust, and electronic control system for cooling. In addition, electronic technology has also entered the driving operating system, and microprocessors have become important assistants for drivers. It can report to the driver at any time such parameters as the oil temperature and water temperature fuel remaining amount, the travel that can be traveled at the current speed, and the time required to reach the destination.
Because the closed-loop electronically controlled direct injection engine adopts miniature digital electronic technology, it facilitates the collection of the operating parameters of the vehicle and the tight control of working conditions, thus realizing the computer's self-optimizing state of optimization under full operating conditions. Undoubtedly, under the guidance of the sustainable development strategy, electronically controlled direct-injection gasoline engine vehicles will soon replace carbureted engine vehicles. Compared with carbureted cars, closed-loop EFI vehicles require more fuel oil.
Not only does gasoline need to be lead-free, but also its composition contains a certain amount of sulfur aromatic benzene olefins. In addition, gasoline detergent must be added to the gasoline to maintain the fuel system of the engine (including the fuel injector The cleaning of the valve combustion chamber).
Therefore, we must speed up the technological advancement of lead-free clean gasoline production, and continue to develop promising lead-free clean gasoline production technologies based on the deep stabilization of catalytically cracked gasoline with mercaptan-catalyzed reforming alkylation and M production. , Such as reducing gasoline olefin technology light gasoline deep etherification benzene fraction hydrogenation saturated hydrodesulfurization isomerization and so on.
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