Autumn greenhouse tomato cultivation techniques

Autumn greenhouse tomato cultivation techniques

The autumn tomatoes in greenhouses have obvious effects of preventing disease, increasing production and extending the supply period. Due to the use of thin film covering and silver-gray film, the occurrence of viral diseases is reduced, and combined with comprehensive technical measures, the yield can be stabilized at 2200-3000 kg per 667 meters, with a high output of 5,000 kg.

First, nursery

1. Variety selection According to the climate characteristics of early autumn tomatoes with high temperature and rain, followed by rapid cooling, the medium and late-maturing varieties with heat-resistance, disease resistance and resistance to storage should be selected, such as L-402, Sidong Shuangtian and Jiafen 15 etc. .

2. Seeding and Seedling Raising Seedlings in our county are sown in mid-July in general. Early sowing is easy to get virus disease, and late sowing is low temperature in later period, affecting fruit ripening and low yield. During the nursery period, in order to prevent rain, sun exposure and virus diseases, the nursery should be set in a high-drying place and used as a sorghum, shade shed, nutritious paper bag or nursery. During the nursery period, the seedlings are not transferred, and the seedling age is 20-25 days. The seedlings have 3-4 leaves for the proper colonization period. The large seedlings are planted to the roots and the virus is seriously ill. If there is a phenomenon of leggy during the seedling period, it should be sprayed 1-2 times (500-1000)×10-6 CSC.

Second, land preparation

In the greenhouse, the autumn tomatoes are planted early and the outside temperature is high. Before the planting, the shading type shed film should be buckled and opened, leaving only the upper part to be protected against rain and light. After the shed film is buckled, the planting quail will be made into 100 cm wide high flat ridges or 50 cm wide ridges, combined with a good base fertilizer and full water. In the future, when the two spikes are left, the distance between the plants is 25 centimeters; when the 3 spikes are left, the spacing is 30 centimeters, and about 475 meters are planted with 4500 seeds.

Third, the management after planting

1, temperature management after planting large day and night release, put the end of the wind, close the greenhouse around, only in the upper air. When the outside temperature drops below 15°C, the ventilation is stopped at night and it is controlled at 25-30°C during the day and 15-17°C at night. After the full shed was tightened in late October, it was ventilated and vented on the roof at noon.

2, fertilizer and water management 2-3 days after planting, when soil moisture is suitable, timely cultivating loose soil, combined with loose soil for ridge cultivation. After easing the seedlings, it can be poured with 1 water, and then watering is prevented for a long time. Until the emergence of large buds pouring a permeable, followed by shallow ploughing, seedlings, until the first ear fruit to the size of walnut top dressing watering, 25 kg per 667 meters of diammonium phosphate. After mid-October, to stop the humidity in the greenhouse, stop watering. At the time of ear swelling, some foliar fertilizers were sprayed.

3, plant adjustments using single stem pruning, leaving 3-4 fruit shape of each fruit in the ear, small fruit type can leave 4-5 fruit, remove the rest of the fruit.

4, auxin processing flowering period using 2,4 - D tomato spirit treatment, in order to facilitate the preservation of fruit. Due to the higher temperature during flowering, the concentration used should be lower than that of spring tomatoes.

5, pest control Autumn tomato cultivation should pay attention to the prevention of virus disease, late blight. Early attention to the prevention and treatment of viral diseases, in addition to the selection of disease-resistant varieties, appropriate sowing, nutrition seedlings nursery and the selection of disease-free seedlings colonization, but also advance sheds, can significantly reduce the amount of aphids. If the diseased plant is found, it should be removed in time and the plant should be planted after washing hands with soap and water. At the middle and late stages, attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of late blight, and ventilation should be used to reduce the temperature, and the diseased leaves should be removed, and full-scale spraying of zein and chlorothalonil should be performed.

Fourth, harvest and storage

Do not use ripening measures and try to delay harvesting in order to improve product quality and price. Each ear harvest period is about 90 days after sowing. Afterwards, the temperature is low, the lighting is insufficient, and the maturation is slow. If the temperature in the shed drops below 5°C, all the fruits must be harvested, packed in baskets, stored in a greenhouse or in a warm house, and listed after being colored. (Contributed by: Zhoukou Agricultural Technology Promotion Station)